Abstract The IPAT Anxiety Scale was administered to a large sample of primiparous women from an economically disadvantaged population in their third trimester of pregnancy. At birth and at three and six months postpartum, the infants and mothers were assessed using a variety of behavioral and standardized procedures. Results indicate that anxiety was not a factor in the incidence of pregnancy and delivery complications or infant anomalies. Neonatal behavior and mother-infant interaction did differ among the high anxious and the low anxious groups. These differences, however, were only significant for female infants, Results are discussed in terms of practical implications and future research.