The vascular effects of nitrolinoleate (LNO(2)), an endogenous product of linoleic acid (LA) nitration by nitric oxide-derived species and a potential nitrosating agent, were investigated on rat endothelial-leukocyte interactions. Confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that LNO(2) was capable to deliver free radical nitric oxide ((center dot)NO) into cells, 5 min after its administration to cultured cells, with a peak of liberation at 30 min. THP-1 monocytes incubated with LNO(2) for 5 min presented nitrosation of CD40, leading to its inactivation. Other anti-inflammatory actions of LNO(2) were observed in vivo by intravital microscopy assays. LNO(2) decreased the number of adhered leukocytes in postcapillary venules of the mesentery network. In addition to this, LNO(2) reduced mRNA and protein expression of 2-integrin in circulating leukocytes, as well as VCAM-1 in endothelial cells isolated from postcapillary venules, confirming its antiadhesive effects on both cell types. Moreover, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, a nitric oxide scavenger, partially abolished the inhibitory action of LNO(2) on leukocyte-endothelium interaction, suggesting that the antiadhesion effects of LNO(2) involve a dual role in leukocyte adhesion, acting as a nitric oxide donor as well as through nitric oxide-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, LNO(2) inhibited adhesion molecules expression and promoted (center dot)NO inactivation of the CD40-CD40L system, both important processes of the inflammatory response. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.