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Usage of -te naranai, -te shikatanai, -te shiyouganai, -te tamaranai in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese : Application to teaching Japanese as a second language

北海道大学留学生センター = Hokkaido University International Student Center
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In this paper, we analyzed the usage of four emotional expressions in Japanese, -te naranai, -te shikatanai, -te shiyouganai, and -te tamaranai, using data from the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese. Analyses were carried out with regard to the (1) parts of speech, (2) meaning and (3) genre of the word which immediately preceded the emotional expressions. The results indicate that -te naranai has more limitations than the other three in terms of what kinds of words can precede the expression. lt often occurs together with kigasuru 'feel like', omoeru 'seem like', and omowareru 'appear to be like'. As well, this expression is often used in formal situations. As for -te tamaranai, it often occurs with adjectives which express hope, likes, and dislikes such as -tai 'want to', suki 'like', and iya 'hate'. It, however, is not suitable for formal situations. The expressions -te shikatanai and -te shiyouganai have no distinctive features regarding the types of words which precede them, but we can categorize the former as written language and the latter as spoken language. We believe that the descriptions of usage of the four expressions based on the large-scale corpus provide useful information for learners of Japanese as a second language.

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