Publisher Summary This chapter describes the post-transcriptional control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1) and other retroviruses and its practical applications. Post-transcriptional control is a key step essential for the expression of cellular and viral mRNAs. After synthesis, processing, and assembly into ribonucleoprotein complexes (messenger ribonucleoprotein, mRNP), the mRNA is exported into the cytoplasm, which involves complex interactions of the mRNPs with transport receptors and with the components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Splicing mark mRNA as “export‐ready” and plays a critical role in promoting mRNA transport. Whereas, HIV and all the complex retroviruses produce several alternatively spliced mRNAs; only two types of mRNAs are produced from simple retroviruses. The unspliced primary transcript of all retroviruses has to exit the nucleus because it serves as genomic RNA, as well as gag/pol mRNA. The transport of unspliced RNA to the cytoplasm requires a special export mechanism. The chapter focuses on the cis‐acting viral RNA export elements and the viral and cellular factors promoting the export of retroviral mRNAs.