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Metformin inhibits macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis rate: Possible role for metformin-induced oxidative stress

Authors
Journal
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
0006-291X
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
439
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.08.062
Keywords
  • Macrophages
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Cholesterol Biosynthesis
  • Metformin
  • Diabetes

Abstract

Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze the metformin (MF) effect on two cellular atherogenic activities: cholesterol biosynthesis and oxidative-stress (OS) as studied in J774A.1 macrophage cell line. MF (2–5mM) significantly and dose-dependently reduced macrophage cholesterol content and cholesterol biosynthesis rate from acetate, but not from mevalonate, by up to 68% and 71%, respectively. MF inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis was similar to that of simvastatin. In contrast to the above anti-atherogenic MF effect, MF significantly increased cellular OS as shown by enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by up to 70%, and decrement in cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels by up to 67%. Macrophage paraoxonase2 (PON2) expression however, increased by MF, by up to 1.5 folds. To overcome the MF oxidation stimulation, macrophages were incubated with MF together with potent dietary antioxidants, i.e. −5μg GAE/ml of pomegranate juice (PJ) or 30μM of vitamin E (VE). Both of these potent antioxidants substantially reduced MF-induced OS, and in parallel, abolished MF inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis rate. We thus conclude that the inhibition of macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis by MF is related, at least in part, to MF-induced OS.

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