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Anesthesia and Analgesia for Small Mammals and Birds

Authors
Journal
Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice
1094-9194
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
10
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.cvex.2006.12.002
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

This article should help the veterinarian to assess pain in small mammals and birds. The focus is on a multimodal approach to anesthesia and analgesia using opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, α 2-agonists, dissociatives, and local anesthetics as injectables, constant rate infusions, local blocks, and epidurals. Drugs used for induction, intubation techniques, and inhalant anesthesia are discussed. Protocols for critical patients and doses of common analgesics are covered.

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