Abstract Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)_is one of the most common benign neoplasms in elderly men in the United States; it has been estimated that the annual costs of caring for these men exceed $4 billion. This condition is rarely life threatening, but often affects the individual's quality of life in varying degrees. There are several treatments for this condition, including surgery, with the most common procedure being transurethral resection of the prostate. Other treatment options include medication (such as finasteride and terazosin), balloon dilation, and watchful waiting. The cost associated with BPH depends on the severity of the disease and the appropriate course of treatment. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the economic research papers that have considered either the economic burden or costs associated with alternative BPH therapy options and to identify key areas for future economic research. This review indicates that the economic studies of BPH are diverse in nature and greater attention needs to be placed on the societal appraisal of competing BPH therapies. Other research areas include the economic analysis of both short- and long-run BPH treatment options, increased cost-utility analysis, and the use of retrospective claims database analysis using regression techniques.