One hundred fifty-one total colonoscopies were performed in 105 children ranging from 1 month to 15 years of age. The cecum was reached successfully in 136 examinations without complications, generally within 30 minutes. Our major indications for total colonoscopy were abnormal findings in a contrast enema, undiagnosed rectal bleeding, and possible organic lesion causing intussusception. All procedures were performed using sedation only. The pediatric gastroscope was employed for total colonoscopy on infants<6 years of age; the cecum was reached successfully in 98 of 106 procedures with this instrument. Our total colonoscopy series contributed to the diagnosis of various disorders in 86 children and of normality in the 19 remaining children. The results suggest that, if performed with proper precautions and techniques, total colonoscopy is a safe and useful procedure with which to examine the entire colon of infants and children.