Abstract Jatropha curcas L. has recently been hailed as the promising feedstock for biodiesel production as it does not compete with food sources. Conventional production of biodiesel from J. curcas L. seeds involve two main processing steps; extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In this study, the feasibility of in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification of J. curcas L. seeds to biodiesel was investigated. It was found that the size of the seed and reaction period effect the yield of FAME and amount of oil extracted significantly. Using seed with size less than 0.355 mm and n-hexane as co-solvent with the following reaction conditions; reaction temperature of 60 °C, reaction period of 24 h, methanol to seed ratio of 7.5 ml/g and 15 wt% of H 2SO 4, the oil extraction efficiency and FAME yield can reached 91.2% and 99.8%, respectively. This single step of reactive extraction process therefore can be a potential route for biodiesel production that reduces processing steps and cost.