Abstract Semiallogeneic somatic hybrid cells (AB2) derived from fusion of a C57B1/6 chemically induced fibrosarcoma (MCB6-1) and a fibroblastic cell (A9) of C3H origin were used to immunize C57B1/6 mice against the parental MCB6-1 tumor cells. In vitro immune lymphocytes were directly cytotoxic against AB2 hybrid cells and A9 allogeneic parental cells, but could not lyse the syngeneic MCB6-1 parental tumor cells. Nevertheless, after a 4-day culture of these immune lymphocytes, a cytotoxic activity against the syngeneic MCB6-1 tumor cells appeared; expression of such a cytotoxic activity did not require the presence of stimulator cells (mitomycin-treated MCB6-1 tumor cells) during the culture. This cytotoxicity is mediated by T cells, as it was completely abrogated by treatment with anti-Thy 1–2 antiserum and complement. These results suggest that a maturation or a differentiation of immune T lymphocytes occurs during in vitro culture, and is necessary for the expression of antitumor cytotoxicity.