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Leader–member exchange (LMX), paternalism, and delegation in the Turkish business culture: An empirical investigation



Although businesses increasingly operate across cultures, there is a paucity of research that examines the influence of national culture on leadership practices. This study uses a structural equation modeling approach to investigate relationships among leader–member exchange (LMX), delegation, paternalism, and job satisfaction in Turkish business organizations. Results from a survey study of N=185 full-time employees from Turkish companies support the relationship of LMX to delegation and job satisfaction. However, the effect of LMX on job satisfaction is mediated by paternalism, an emic cultural dimension. Results suggest that delegation might not be an effective management tool in the Middle Eastern context. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 264–279. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400185

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