Abstract Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine HIV screening for adults. Objectives Community-based participatory research incorporates subjects in the design and conduct of research. We included nurses and physicians in the implementation of HIV rapid test use in the emergency department (ED). We explored the process, facilitators, and barriers. Methods We identified clinical champions and trained staff. Physicians obtained consent and ordered HIV testing; nurses performed rapid testing. Testing rates were tracked by electronic medical record. We conducted regular meetings between staff and researchers. Semistructured qualitative interviews with providers were conducted at 3 months. Results By week 15, we administered 121 tests. After the eligibility protocol evolved to incorporate ED nursing concerns regarding staffing limitations from a random sampling model to one focused on testing during nonpeak hours, the weekly number of tests increased. Eighteen percent of providers favored nontargeted HIV screening, 27% favored the current model of testing at nonpeak hours, 32% supported diagnostic testing, and 18% favored no testing or “other.” Barriers include written consent, electronic documentation, time constraints, and belief that screening is not a core ED duty. Facilitators include ease of test administration, belief that ED patients are at higher risk, and flexibility to tailor screening efforts according to patient volume. Conclusions The ED-based HIV testing is feasible within a Veterans Hospital Administration setting. Involvement of nursing in a community-based participatory research implementation model may facilitate staff acceptance of nontargeted HIV screening and be a mechanism to initiate administration of clinical preventive services to ED patients with limited primary care contact.