Abstract Depression is the fourth leading factor of disease burden for the global female population, but while increasing evidence has supported a contributing role of depression in cardiovascular disease, little is known about this association within the female population of Korea. We examined the association in a study of 5658 Korean women who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 279 cases of depression were included. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with higher odds of depression: ORs (95% CIs) were 3.99 (2.25–7.05) for current smokers with <5 pack-years vs. never-smokers, 1.97 (1.18–3.30) for ≥28 vs. <20kg/m2 of body mass index, 1.42 (1.03–1.95) for 100–125 vs. <100mg/dL of fasting serum glucose levels, and 2.10 (1.46–3.03) for a history of hyperlipidemia. Women with a history of two or three comorbid disorders (diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) had a 1.63-fold higher OR for depression than women without any of these diseases. Korean women with depression had a greater prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease than women without depression.