Within the framework of a diploma thesis completed at the end of 2009, a first step has been taken towards an analysis and documentation of the history of the Study Library (Studienbibliothek) Linz – today called Library of the Province of Upper Austria (Oberösterreichische Landesbibliothek) – during the Nazi regime. The results of this research work are presented in this paper. A brief journey through the history of the library takes us from the important groundwork done by Josef Hofinger during his tenure as head librarian from 1935 to 1938 to the difficult tasks and problems the Study Library had to cope with in the post-war years until 1948. The war years were primarily characterized by the excessive acquisition policy of Walter Luegmayer, who was appointed head librarian by the Nazis and during whose term of office the library was stocked with thousands of books looted and confiscated by National Socialist authorities. As far as is known, the majority of these books were the property of institutions and societies dissolved or persecuted by the Nazis (Seminary Linz, Capuchin Monastery Linz, Chamber of Labour Linz, Upper Austrian Chamber of Agriculture, Commercial Association Linz, Upper Austrian Public Education Society, Upper Austrian monasteries) or confiscated from Jewish private owners (Georg Landauer). The main purpose of the research work was to reconstruct, how some of these books found their way into the Study Library and – if possible – to clarify the issue of restitution. The main focus is on the private library of Georg Landauer and on collections owned by the church.