Abstract Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) induced a large increase in the type II 5′-deiodinase (5'D) activity in astroglial cells. This required a time lag of about 4 h. Half-maximal stimulation was obtained with about 7 ng/ml aFGF. This factor at 20 ng/ml induced several times more 5'D activity than did 20 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) after 8 h incubation. aFGF (20 ng/ml) produced a 10–50-fold increase in 5'D activity after 24 h, whereas the effect of 20 ng/ml bFGF had disappeared after 24 h. Heparin (17 μ/ml) potentiated the 5'D response to natural and recombinant aFGF. Glucocorticoids amplified the aFGF-induction of 5'D activity. This is the first demonstration in astroglial cells that a growth factor can regulate the 5'D activity.