Abstract Bone replacement materials for reconstruction of bone defects must be biocompatible and biodegradable and must have osteoconductive or even osteogenic potential. Ideally, their shape should also be adaptable to the defect and they should possess long-term adaptability to the biomechanical situation at the implantation site. Human mesenchymal stem cells of the cambium layer of the periosteum were cultivated, placed in a fibrin suspension on a preformed carrier structure (PGLA polymer+ β-TCP), and cultivated under conditions of osteogenic differentiation. After 10, 20, 30, and 40 days, histological examination was performed, alkaline phosphatase activity and levels of osteocalcin, DNA, and collagen were determined, and the influence of addition of TGF- β1 at a concentration of 5 ng/ml to the culture medium was investigated. Demonstration of bone-specific marker proteins indicated that the in vitro combination of mesenchymal stem cells, PGLA polymer, β-TCP, and fibrin resulted in de-novo synthesis of human preosseous tissue, while addition of TGF- β1 resulted in greater new bone formation with significantly higher concentrations of marker proteins. Histological examination showed the presence of newly formed bone at the surface of the implant. As compared with the use of structured TCP or hydroxyapatite implants as in earlier works, use of a combination of autologous cell material, PGLA polymer, and β-TCP results in a malleable, vital implant that is adaptable to the bone defect. This combination thus may represent a new option for the treatment of bone defects.