Abstract 37 aliphatic epoxides comprising 6 subclasses (unsubstituted aliphatic epoxides, halogenated aliphatic epoxides, glycidyl esters, glycidates, glycidyl ethers and diglycidyl ethers) were tested, under code, for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 and/or TA97 with and without metabolic activation using a standardized protocol. The 4 halogenated aliphatic epoxides and the 4 diglycidyl ethers were all mutagenic. The 2 glycidates were negative in all strain/activation systems used while all 5 glycidyl esters were mutagenic. 3 of the 8 unsubstituted aliphatic epoxides and 11 of the 12 glycidyl ethers were mutagenic. Glycidol also was mutagenic whereas 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester was not mutagenic. Of the 28 mutagenic compounds, all but neodecanoic acid, 2,3-epoxypropyl ester and 2-ethylhexyl glycidyl ether were detected in TA100 without activation. The latter two were detected only with activation in TA100 and TA1535. The majority of the other 26 chemicals were also mutagenic in TA1535 without activation. Good intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility was seen in the results of each of the 4 chemicals tested in more than one set of experiments. The current results confirm and extend the observations of other investigators regarding structural effects on the mutagenicity of members of the aliphatic epoxide class of chemicals.