Human PiT2 (PiT2) is a multiple-membrane-spanning protein that functions as a type III sodium phosphate cotransporter and as the receptor for amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV). Human PiT1 (PiT1), another type III sodium phosphate cotransporter, is a highly related protein that functions as a receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus but not for A-MuLV. The ability of PiT1 and PiT2 to function as discrete viral receptors with unique properties presumably is reflected in critical residue differences between these two proteins. Early efforts to map the region(s) within PiT2 that is important for virus binding and/or entry relied on infection results obtained with PiT1-PiT2 chimeric cDNAs expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHOK1) cells. These attempts to localize the PiT2 virus-binding site were hampered because they were based on infectivity, not binding, assays, and therefore, receptors that bound but failed to facilitate virus entry could not be distinguished from receptors that did not bind virus. Using a more accurate topological model for PiT2 as well as an A-MuLV receptor-binding assay, we have identified extracellular domain one (ECD1) of the human PiT2 receptor as being important for A-MuLV binding and infection.