Purpose Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in the turnover of the extracellular matrix and cellular behavior. MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and open angle glaucoma secondary to exfoliation syndrome (XFG), respectively. Functional gene polymorphisms of these MMPs such as MMP1 −1607 1G/2G (rs1799750), MMP2 −1306 C/T (rs243865), MMP2 −1575 G/A (rs243866), and MMP9 Q279R (rs17576) are thus plausible candidates as risk factors for open angle glaucomas. The purpose of the present study was to investigate hypothesized associations between these polymorphisms and the presence of POAG and XFG in a Caucasian population. Methods The present case-control study included 322 patients with POAG, 202 patients with XFG, and 248 control subjects. Genotyping of polymorphisms was done using polymerase chain reaction. Results No significant differences in either genotype distributions or allelic frequencies of MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R were found between patients with POAG and control subjects and patients with XFG and control subjects, respectively (p>0.05). The presence of POAG or XFG was not predicted by any of the investigated polymorphisms. Conclusions Our data suggest that the MMP1 −1607 1G/2G, MMP2 −1306 C/T, MMP2 −1575 G/A, and MMP9 Q279R polymorphisms themselves are unlikely major risk factors among Caucasian patients with either POAG or XFG.