Abstract In Eastern Anatolia, the neotectonic episode commenced with the complete elemination of the neo-Tethyan ocean floor as a result of collision between Arabia and Eurasia during Early Miocene time. After the collision, continuing convergence initiated a new tectonic regime and coeval magmatic activity. The post-collisional convergence caused crustal shortening and thickening as evidenced by regionwide development of E-W trending folds and thrusts, and conjugate strike-slip faults. The related volcanic activity has progressed in three cycles. In the initial cycle weakly-alkaline volcanic rocks were produced that are known as the Solhan volcanics. They outcrop at the western end of an E-W striking neotectonic depression called the Muş basin, which constitutes the western prolongation of the Lake Van basin. The basin is a thrust-bounded depression that developed out of an original syncline by the disruption of its limbs. The lavas of the first cycle reached the surface along N-S aligned extensional structures. In the second volcanic cycle a widespread K-type Ca volcanism occurred through crustal contribution during the Late Miocene-early Pliocene time when the continuing north-south convergence caused substantial shortening and thickening of the continental crust. The last volcanic cycle produced a thick volcanic cover consisting of rocks of alkaline affinity during the Pleistocene and the Quaternary when the thickened crust began to accommodate the ongoing north-south shortening by east-west extension after the formation of the East and North Anatolian transform faults.