We demonstrate the first successful application of exome sequencing to discover the gene for a rare, Mendelian disorder of unknown cause, Miller syndrome (OMIM %263750). For four affected individuals in three independent kindreds, we captured and sequenced coding regions to a mean coverage of 40X, and sufficient depth to call variants at ~97% of each targeted exome. Filtering against public SNP databases and a small number of HapMap exomes for genes with two novel variants in each of the four cases identified a single candidate gene, DHODH, which encodes a key enzyme in the pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis pathway. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of DHODH mutations in three additional families with Miller syndrome. Exome sequencing of a small number of unrelated, affected individuals is a powerful, efficient strategy for identifying the genes underlying rare Mendelian disorders and will likely transform the genetic analysis of monogenic traits.