Abstract Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix by a variety of cells, including the endothelial cells. Addition of angiotensin II (AII) significantly induced TSP-1 mRNA in rat heart-derived endothelial cells. TSP-1 mRNA levels reached a plateau within 2 h after the addition of AII and decreased after 5 h. The induction was superinduced by cycloheximide and blocked by actinomycin D. Losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, could abolish the induction of TSP-1 mRNA by AII. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) was found to enhance TSP-1 mRNA level whereas a protein kinase C inhibitor, H7, was shown to block the induction. Immunoblot analysis revealed that TSP-1 was detectable in the medium 4 h after AII stimulation. Our results suggest that the upregulation of TSP-1 by AII represents an important mechanism leading to perivascular fibrosis in the heart.