Abstract The adenovirus-specific DNA-binding protein (DBP) has been shown to inhibit the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by a DNase isolated from KB cells, (Nass, K., and Frenkel, G.D. (1980). J. Virol. 35, 314–319). The specificity of the inhibition has now been investigated. The DBP inhibits the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by several different DNases (DNase II, KB DNase, S1 nuclease) under a variety of reaction conditions, but it has no effect on DNase I-catalyzed hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA. The DBP also inhibits the rate of hydrolysis of double-stranded DNA by KB DNase and DNase II, but has no effect on DNase I-catalyzed hydrolysis of this substrate. The DBP also inhibits the dephosphorylation of 5′-phosphoryl-terminated DNA by bacterial alkaline phosphatase but stimulates the phosphorylation of 5′-hydroxyl-terminated DNA by polynucleotide kinase.