We report the outcome of chloroquine treatment and the prevalence of mutations at codon 86 of the pfmdr 1 gene, at codon 76 of the pfcrt gene, and at codon 108 of the pfdhfr gene in clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum collected from 30 children under 10 years of age living in the Comoros Union. This in vivo study was carried out in February and March 2001 in Moroni. Chloroquine treatment failed in 23 children (76.6 %; 95 % confidence interval: 57.7 to 90.1 %). Subsequent genotyping showed that all P. falciparum isolates (100%) harboured a tyrosine residue at position 86 in pfMDRl. 83.3 % (25/30) of these isolates harboured a mutation at position 76 in pfCRT and half (15/30) of these isolates also harboured a mutation at position 108 in pfDHFR. Chloroquine resistance is a real concern in the Comoros Union. The prevalence of pfDHFR mutant parasites is alarming. The alternative drugs proposed as a replacement for chloroquine as first-line treatment in Comoros, and the strategy to monitor the drug susceptibility of Plasmodium sp in this part of the Indian Ocean sub-region are discussed.