Abstract The behavior of extramitochondrial protein synthesis and of mitochondrial RNA and protein synthesis was examined in the cytoplasts of African green monkey kidney cells (TC-7 subline) at different times following enucleation by cytochalasin B. The rate of incorporation of [ 3H]isoleucine into protein of the soluble cytoplasmic fraction decreased in an approximately exponential fashion, with a half-life of about five hours, during the first 26 hours after enucleation. Discrete mitochondrial 16 S, 12 S and 4 S RNA components were identified among the products of cytoplast RNA synthesis. The rates of [ 3H]uridine incorporation into the 16 and 12 S RNA components as well as into total RNA declined progressively after enucleation to a barely detectable level by the 20th hour. By contrast, the rate of chloramphenicol-sensitive [ 3H]isoleucine incorporation into protein (due to mitochondrial protein synthesis) did not undergo a substantial decline for at least 20 hours in TC-7 cytoplasts; instead, a reproducible transient stimulation occurred in the first hours following enucleation. The products of mitochondrial protein synthesis pulse-labeled in nucleated cells and in cytoplasts 24 hours after enucleation exhibited similar electrophoretic profiles.