Abstract Although the immunization of primates with irradiated schistosome cercariae has been demonstrated, no success has been reported by injection with the irradiated schistosomule stage. The present investigation was designed to test whether cynomolgus monkeys could be protectively immunized with 60Co-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula. Monkeys injected once with 10 4 irradiated schistosomula (50 krad at 4 krad/min) had 52% fewer challenge worms than the control group at necropsy. Four immunizations did not induce a higher level of resistance. At 50 days post-challenge, the immunized monkeys excreted 80% fewer eggs than did the control animals. An attempt to enhance irradiated schistosomule-induced protection with tetramisole · HCl was unsuccessful.