Purpose To present the results of management of patients with persistent diplopia after orbital reconstructive surgery with respect to the type of ocular motility impairment pattern. Methods All patients referred during a 2-year period because of persistent diplopia after surgical repair of orbital fracture were categorized according to the degree and pattern of ocular motility impairment on the basis of orthoptic examination 3-4 weeks postoperatively. Patients were followed for a mean period of 10.5 months (range, 6-12 months), during which adequate treatment was implemented. Results A total of 52 patients were included in the study (45 males; mean age, 41.8 ± 16.6 years). Most could be divided into 1 of 4 groups according to the type of ocular motility impairment. The follow-up orthoptic examination revealed resolution of diplopia in 9 patients (15%) and persistent but unbothersome diplopia in 26 (43.4%). Significant diplopia was treated conservatively in 3 patients (5%) and with strabismus surgery in 14 (23.3%) cases. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that in most cases of persistent diplopia after reconstructive surgery for orbital fractures, symptoms resolve over time without treatment; nevertheless, strabismus surgery is unavoidable in some cases.