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The contribution of listening comprehension to second language (L2) and foreign language (FL) language learning

Publication Date
  • 130000 Education
  • 130204 English And Literacy Curriculum And Pedagogy (Excl. Lote Esl And Tesol)
  • 130207 Lote Esl And Tesol Curriculum And Pedagogy (Excl. Maori)
  • Mathematics


158-EPD08-FP-Merkuri-FOE2012 Learning Disabilities and its Signs. How to Identify Learners with Learning Disabilities Zamira Mërkuri, Blerta Xheko “Eqrem Çabej” University of Gjirokastra (Albania) [email protected], [email protected] 1. Introduction A learning disability (LD) is a disorder that affects a child's ability to interpret what he/she sees and hears or to link information from different parts of the brain. Learning disabilities are presumed to arise from dysfunctions in the brain. Individuals with learning disabilities have significant difficulties in perceiving information (input), in processing and remembering information (integration) and/or in expressing information (output). Outward manifestations of any of these difficulties serve as indicators or warning signs of a learning disability. Some types of learning disabilities are: - Reading disabilities (often referred to as dyslexia) - Written language disabilities (often referred to as dysgraphia) - Math disabilities (often called dyscalculia) Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. A person with dyslexia can have problems in any of the tasks involved in reading. Dysgraphia (difficulty in writing) involves several brain areas and functions. The brain networks for vocabulary, grammar, hand movement, and memory must all be in good working order. A developmental writing disorder may result from problems in any of these areas. Dyscalculia (difficulty with mathematics) involves recognizing numbers and symbols, memorizing facts, aligning numbers, and understanding abstract concepts like place value and fractions. Any of these may be difficult for children with developmental arithmetic disorders, also called dyscalculia. 2. Warning Signs in Preschool Children Although children’s growth patterns vary among individuals and within individuals, uneven development or significant delays in d

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