This article aims to describe how the nursing system was established during the period that the Japanese Red Cross Society (JRCS) hadn't had any institution o nursing training, and to reveal the reason why nursing was established as women's occupation. The fact of such a nursing system inplies us the position and the role that nurses ought to take in the Hakuai-Sha (the Philanthropic Society). We examined a lot of primary sources including daily reorts, journals, resolutions and others, to make clear the fact of the nursing systems. As a result of examination, we found that there were two kinds of nurses in the Hakuai-Sha. One was kango-nin unskilled male-nurses, and the other was the kanbyo-fu were employed without any nursing training. Regarding their roles, the kango-nin was especially charged with first aid at field hospitals in wartime, while the kanbyo-fu was employed to look after the injured and the sick in a hospital in peacetime. Although the Japanese Red Cross Society established the nursing training institution in 1890, the institution was arranged only for women.