Abstract Coal accounts for more than 70% of total energy consumption in China. Kinds of ecological problems resulting from coal mining have become increasingly serious, which directly threaten regional ecological security and people's normal production and livelihood in some areas. Ecological vulnerability is the overall performance of the ecosystem change under mining development, thus evaluation of ecological vulnerability based on GIS in Fuxin mining master plan environmental impact assessment was presented in this article. According to ecological condition of Fuxin, the ecological vulnerability index was established synthetically reflecting ecological environmental status, ecological sensitivity and landscape spatial structure, including 9 indictors. The study area was divided into 247 grids, then the EVI value of each grid was calculated by comprehensive evaluation and the results were divided into 5 levels by Zonal Statistic analysis of ArcGIS. Combining the distribution of vulnerability classification with the important ecological function area and natural reserves in the scope of planning, the research area was plotted into five types of zone, i.e., appropriate exploitation zone, optimized exploitation zone, moderate exploitation zone, restrictive exploitation zone and forbidden exploitation zone. Several adjustment suggestions were put forward to optimize the layout of Fuxin mining area and guide the ecological protection during coal exploitation.