Background: To evaluate the prognostic value of lymph node density (LND) in patients with lymph node-positive cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 88 consecutive patients were included in our study. Patients were treated with cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy after surgical staging was performed at the Medical University of Vienna. Lymph node density, that is, the ratio of positive lymph nodes to the total number of lymph nodes removed, was assessed pathologically. Patients were stratified into two groups according to LND: patients with LND ⩽10% and patients with LND >10%. Lymph node density was correlated with clinicopathological parameters by χ2-tests. Univariate log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between LND and survival. Results: A significant correlation between LND and FIGO stage (P=0.03), but not patients' age (P=0.2), histological grade (P=0.8), and histological type (P=0.5), was observed. In a univariate survival analysis, LND (P=0.01; P=0.01), FIGO stage (P=0.01; P=0.008), and histological grade (P=0.03; P=0.04) were associated with disease-free and overall survival, respectively. Patients with LND >10% had impaired disease-free and overall survival rates compared with patients with LND ⩽10%. In a multivariate regression model, LND (P=0.01; P<0.05) and FIGO stage (P=0.002; P=0.002) were independent predictors of disease-free and overall survival, respectively. Conclusions: LND >10% is associated with an impaired disease-free and overall survival. Lymph node density may be used as an independent prognostic parameter in patients with lymph node-positive cervical cancer.