# A line of sight counteraction navigation algorithm for ship encounter collision avoidance

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## Abstract

A new navigation method, called a Line of Sight Counteraction Navigation (LOSCAN) algorithm has been introduced to aid manoeuvre decision making for collision avoidance based on a two-ship encounter. The LOSCAN algorithm is derived from an extension of the basic principle of traditional missile proportional navigation, recognising that the objective of the latter is target capture rather than target avoidance. The basic concept is to derive an acceleration command so as to increase the misalignment between the ships' relative velocity and the line-of-sight. The algorithm includes a risk assessment and the generation of appropriate navigation commands to manoeuvre own ship free of collision if a risk of collision exists. Numerical examples have been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The relationship between the distance at the closest point of approach with respect to early warning distance, and with the norm of the acceleration, has also been analysed. In operation, the collision avoidance decision making process is a complicated problem, with its solution subject to ship states, practical dynamic constraints, Collision Avoidance Regulations (COLREGS), encountering ship manoeuvre coordination and human decision making factors. The proposed algorithm provides a consistent manoeuvre signal to aid decision-making.

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