Abstract Between the 19th and 25th April 1914, the First Spanish Congress of Paediatrics was held in Palma de Mallorca under the slogan “Protect the Children”. The specialty had broken away a few years earlier from its secular connection with Obstetrics and Gynaecology, both in its teaching aspect as well as regarding healthcare. With the newly created Chairs in Childhood Diseases, in a way this Congress meant the coming-of age and debut int society of paediatrics in our country. Prof. Martínez Vargas, a university professor in Barcelona, was the Chairman, and soul of the congress. There was a need to face a very high rate of infant mortality. The Congress responded to that social and sanitary/health demand with the participation of over three hundred pediatricians, including foreign representatives from Belgium, France, Russia and Latin America. The activities were divided into four sections: Childcare, Child Medicine, Surgery and Health, and accredited lecturers gave master classes on the most pressing issues of child pathology of the time. One hundred years on, what we are today is the fruit gathered by those who preceded us. Some were brilliant figures in paediatrics and others, the majority, anonymous paediatricians. They dedicated their lives, their science and their best smile to child care. The way we were and the way we are. With legitimate pride and satisfaction, it is an honour for the Group on the History of Paediatrics and AEP Documentation to celebrate this centennial commemoration in the framework of the Annals of Paediatrics.