Abstract Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterized by portal inflammation and immune-mediated destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts that often result in liver failure. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 recognizes lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria. Infectious agents have been suspected to play a crucial role in PBC pathogenesis since TLR4 expression was found in bile duct epithelial cells and periportal hepatocytes in liver tissues of PBC. To assess the potential contribution of TLR4 SNPs to the development of this disease, we genotyped five SNPs in TLR4 in 261 PBC patients and 359 controls using a TaqMan assay. No significant positive associations with either PBC susceptibility or progression were uncovered. These results indicate that TLR4 polymorphisms do not play a prominent role in the development of PBC in Japanese patients.