Abstract A negative hydrogen ion source was designed and manufactured for the SKKUCY-9 cyclotron at Sungkyunkwan University. This ion source is a penning ionization gauge type source. We analyzed the electromagnetic field distribution for simulation of electron temperature, electron trajectory, and average electric field in the anode using CST Particle Studio. We applied the ion bombardment position by electric field simulation data and confirmed the thermal distribution of the cathode. The anode structure was developed using these simulation results. The penning discharge of plasma in the ion source occurred at 0.4T. This ion source operates with a hydrogen flow of 1–5cm3/min. The ignition voltage is approximately 1.7kV and the arc current varies from 0.1A to 2A. The structure of the ion source was constructed and the experimental results are in good agreement and can be useful information for the operation of a negative ion source.