Abstract The crux of the European dilemma in international corporate planning lies in the frequent European fate as a way-station for manufacturers that begin their commercial lives in North America and end them in the Less Developed Countries. Thus, it is the companies in middle income countries like Europe (and Japan) that are going to have to be fastest on their feet. By and large, they have neither the first markets nor the last production sites. If they wish to survive, they will have to plan to take up and cast off products. Unless, of course, we wish to go back to the negotiated interwar, no or low growth environment. Fortunately, however, there probably is no going back. The cost to consumers of protected markets would be far too high to be acceptable.