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Effect of Fat Level, Salt Concentration, and Electric Power Level on Microwave Heating Properties of Ground Pork Patties

Publication Date
Keywords
  • Pork Patties
  • Microwave Cooking
  • Temperature Distribution
  • Cooking Pattern
  • Cooking Properties
  • Power Level
  • Fat Level
  • Salt Concentration
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Chemistry

Abstract

l. Temperature Distribution and Cooking Pattern of Ground Pork Patties as Affected by Microwave Power Levels Ground pork patties were processed from hams to achieve fat level of 20%. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 76.7 °C in a microwave oven with power level of 40% (360W), 60% (540W), 80%, and 100% (full power, 900W), respectively. Cooking rate increased with power level, and the non-uniformity also increased with time during cooking. Regardless of power levels, the edge overheating effect was observed, and maximum temperature differences in between the edge position and the center position were found in patties cooked by 900W power level. Compositional properties, total cooking loss, and drip loss were not affected by power level but moisture content was lower at the edge position compared to the center position. As power level increased, change in diameter reduction of cooked patties increased whereas reduction in thickness decreased. Compared with higher power levels (720W and 900W), pork patties cooked by lower power levels (360W and 540W) had higher shear force values. Fewer changes were observed in instrumental color values and amino acid profile, but protein solubility in the edge position of patties was affected by power level, increased with power levels. In electrophoretic banding pattern, cooked patties were not affected by power level among the center positions or the edge positions. II. Microwave Cooking Properties of Ground Pork Patties as Affected by Various Fat Levels Ground pork patties were processed from hams to achieve fat levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Each patty was cooked in a microwave oven with full power (700W) to 75 °C from a thawed state. As fat levels increased, cooking time decreased. Total cooking loss and drip loss were highest for 25% fat patties and lowest for 5% fat patties. High-fat patties (20% and 25%) had greater reductions in diameter than did 5% to 15% fat patties, but had less change in patty thickness. Shear force values decreased as fat levels increased. Visual evaluations also indicated a greater presence of air pockets in high-fat patties. In raw patties, low-fat samples were darker (had lower L* values) and were redder (had higher a* values) than patties with more fat. However, these differences were relatively smaller when the patties were cooked. As fat levels increased, flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and oiliness ratings increased. These differences were not as apparent when comparing among low-fat patties or high-fat patties. III. Effects of Fat Level and with/without NaCl on Physicochemical Properties of Ground Pork Patties Cooked by Microwave Energy Ground pork patties were processed from hams to achieve fat levels of 10% and 20%. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 76.7 °C in a microwave oven with full power (900W). Cooking rate in patties produced without salt was not affected by fat level, but the addition of salt in pork patties decreased cooking rate regardless of fat levels. The temperatures of the edge positions in the patties were faster than those of the center positions or the mid-way positions. Patties with fat alone (10% fat or 20% fat) had a similar cooking pattern. However, the presence of salt in patties increased the non-uniformity of temperature profiles, and the temperature of the center position was higher than that of the mid-way position. In standard deviation of temperature, patties with fat alone (10% fat or 20% fat) had greater variability of temperature than those containing fat and salt. Patties containing salt within the same fat level had higher moisture content and lower fat content, but no significant differences were found on compositional properties among the three positions

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