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생명 당위와 도덕적 당위에 관한 연구 - 생명 신학을 위하여

Publication Date
Keywords
  • 도덕 당위
  • 생명 당위
  • 성명
  • 생명
  • 인문주의
  • 칸트
  • 성리학
  • 자연
  • 자유.
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Philosophy

Abstract

Moral philosophers, who have been so called humanists, want to constuct moral mind by overcoming the natural desire of life. The biological needs of human body have had to be surpassed because they were thought of as transgression of moral law. That's why Kant established the deontological ethics along with formal law respected universally. Moral agent should win over the natual tendency of self-love, Neigungen, in order to get real freedom based on autonomy. In the same way, Mencius, the representative of the East Asia's moralists, founded morality on the thought of mind which is not wrapped in the natural sense organs. It is common for the moralists of Eastern and Western culture to try to find humaness of human being apart from the nature and sensitivity. Resaon must prevail for the human world and human freedom itself of the moral agent. I think that that kind of cultural accumulation end up with the weekness of human life. Of course, the natural instinct which the moralists want to overcome is destructive because of its selfishness. But its selfishness stemms from the society not from the natrue. It is , if we can call it, socialized nature. It has become kind of nature, so that Christianism sees no possibility of doing good in human nature. But human being still has its nature in spite of the socialed selfish nature. And that kind of nature is not Mencius' good nature or Kant's original faculty of goodness of reason. It is more question of life. Life obligation is more fundamental than the moral obligation. We mean the natural will to live. It might be contaminated and corrupted as the moralists say. It is easily turned into the will to power in this world. In the current human world, to live has become to survive. In order to survive we cannot help having mind armed with agressivity. Agressive instinct and instinct to death has intergral part of human life. That's why we are interested in life obligation. The will to live is no more the naturally performed because it is struggling with the instinct of death called the socialized nature. Life desire becomes kind of obligation beacuse it is confronted with death desire in the daliy lives. But the humanistic morality which has been still prevailing cannot solve the problem, because it opresses the selfiness that is kind of naturalized. Rather than going up like the moralists to reach the goal of self accomplisment and freedom,, we choose to go down to the natural will to live. The oppression of natural desire of selfishness can not be alternative for freedom but results in weekening the vivid life, the liveness of life. The liveness of life is not necessarily from the meaningfulness of self cultivated personality but also from the faithfulness to living life itself. It is kind of new spirituality because it is to go down from the high valued mind to the natural rythme of body. It is to turn away from the material world of consumption and even the property of morality. We can see that kind of spirituality in Chuzi and Toegye's thoughts. They try to find the morality along with the natural world. There is the natural life itself at the beginning and the end of moral cultivation. In spite of their somewhat human centerd tendency to work out with the human world conflicts, they are aware that the base and the end of human efforts is the nature, natural desire of life of all the creatures. In that sense, the life obligation accomplish, not abolish the moral obligation. Their thoughts is one way that deseeve our attention to find new direction of culture.

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