Since 1968 investigators from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU-2) and the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) have conducted parasitological/biomedical surveys in every major island in the Indonesian archipelago. Even smaller islands such as Nasi and Beras off of Sumatra and Beeuw off of Irian Jaya are represented in these studies. These activities were aimed to update and provide new information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites as well as other infectious agents. These surveys were done in collaboration with the Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environmental Health (CDC&EH), universities and other health institutions such as the Indonesian Armed Forces Health Services, Provincial Health Services, and others. Stool specimens, blood smears, and venous blood examined in these studies showed that most of the population surveyed were infected with one to 7 different species of parasites. Between 50% to 95% of the population had multiple infections.