This paper examines thoroughly the Chilean Pension Reform, giving first an overview of the mandatory saving plan, the relevant institutions, and the rules for transition from the old to the new system. The main part of the paper contains a critical evaluation of the reform, in particular the macroeconomic performance with respect to capital formation and growth, and the effects on the savings rate as well as on the rates of return and labor market are discussed. Furthermore, the development of capital markets is reviewed. A short critique is presented with respect to intergenerational distribution and risk sharing as well as with respect to the social consequences. This paper is the result of a CFS sponsored research project. A preliminary version was presented at the meeting of the committee of Social Policy of the Verein fuer Socialpolitik, May 1999 and at the 55th Congress of IIPF, 23-26 August 1999, in Moskow.