Background Constitutive activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB is frequently observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current study examined associations of polymorphisms within promoter regions of NFKB1 encoding NF-κB1 and NFKBIA encoding IκBα with the susceptibility of developing HCC and clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. Methodology and Principal Findings Genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 135 HCC patients and 520 healthy controls. The genotypic frequency of the NFKB1 -94 Ins polymorphism in HCC patients was significantly higher than that of the controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32∼3.77). No statistical significance was observed for the distribution frequency of the NFKBIA −-519 C/T, -826 C/T, or -881 A/G genotype and haplotype polymorphisms between HCC patients and controls. Furthermore, female HCC patients carrying the NFKB1 -94 Ins polymorphism were associated with lower clinical stages and smaller tumor sizes. Conclusions Our results indicate that the NFKB1 -94 Ins promoter polymorphism increased the risk of HCC, and may be applied as a predictive factor for the clinical stage and tumor size in female HCC patients.