Abstract Background We previously reported our short-term experience of foreskin preputioplasty as an alternative to circumcision for the treatment of foreskin balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO). In this study, we aimed to compare this technique with circumcision over a longer period. Methods Between 2002 and 2007, boys requiring surgery for BXO were offered either foreskin preputioplasty or primary circumcision. The preputioplasty technique involved triradiate preputial incisions and injection of triamcinolone intralesionally. Retrospective case-note analysis was performed to identify patient demographics, symptoms, and outcomes. Results One hundred thirty-six boys underwent primary surgery for histologically confirmed BXO. One hundred four boys opted for foreskin preputioplasty, and 32, for circumcision. At a median follow-up of 14 months (interquartile range, 2.5-17.8), 84 (81%) of 104 in the preputioplasty group had a fully retractile and no macroscopic evidence of BXO. Of 104, 14 (13%) developed recurrent symptoms/BXO requiring circumcision or repeat foreskin preputioplasty. In the circumcision group, 23 (72%) of 32 had no macroscopic evidence of BXO. The incidence of meatal stenosis was significantly less in the foreskin preputioplasty group, 6 (6%) of 104 vs 6 (19%) of 32 (P = .034). Conclusion Our results show a good outcome for most boys undergoing foreskin preputioplasty and intralesional triamcinolone for BXO. There is a small risk of recurrent BXO, but rates of meatal stenosis may be reduced.