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Osteometry, Variability, Biomechanics and Locomotion Pattern of the Cave Bear Limb Bones from Croatian Localities

Croatian Geological Survey
Publication Date
  • Cave Bear
  • Limb Bones
  • Rtg-Osteometry
  • Variability
  • Biomechanics
  • Locomotion
  • Pleistocene
  • Vindija
  • Velika Pecina
  • Veternica
  • Cerovacke Pecine
  • Croatia
  • Social Sciences


The estimated stylo- and zeugopodial bone index is lower for the cave bears from the mountainous region (Cerovacke pecine caves) than the bone index from the hilly-lowlands caves (Vindija, Velika pecina, Veternica) and indicates that limb loading depends on the body mass and palaeoenvironment. The type of movement was similar to the locomotion of the recent brown bear but with somewhat more expressed plantigrady on the hind limbs. At the same time, the sex ratio of the studied material depends firstly on the site morphology (endogene or exogene cave), i.e. its function (dense or periodically visited shelter), and also on geological processes and human activity.

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