Summary Objective Vincristine chemotherapy is mainly associated with neurotoxic effects. The ototoxicity of vincristine has been related to high dosage, while low and moderate doses do not seem to induce significant hearing impairment when measured by pure tone or speech audiometry. Otoacoustic emissions have been reported to be more sensitive in early detection of ototoxicity than conventional pure tone audiometry. The present study was directed at determining whether vincristine treatment interferes with outer hair cell function in the absence of measurable changes in pure tone audiometry. Methods We studied prospectively a cohort of ten children suffering from leukemia. All children were subjected to tympanogram, stapedial muscle reflex, pure tone audiometry, transient evoked (TEOAEs) and distortion product (DPOAEs) otoacoustic emissions on day 1 and on day 22 of treatment with vincristine. TEOAEs were analyzed in terms of emission level and reproducibility as a function of frequency. DPOAEs were obtained as DP-grams and were analyzed in terms of amplitude. Results The analyzed parameters of TEOAEs and DPOAEs revealed a declining tendency, although changes did not reach statistical significance. Pure tone audiometry and stapedial reflex thresholds were not altered. Conclusion For the population of this study, vincristine did not seem to cause significant alterations of otoacoustic emissions’ recordings and consequently significant outer hair cell damage.