This article reviews the research literature on the behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric burn injuries. Highlighted applications include modification of distress during medical procedures (hydrotherapy, debridement, dressing changes, and physical therapy), consummatory behavior, sleep-related problems, and self-excoriation. Results of studies suggest that behavioral procedures hold considerable promise in impacting on the multiple problems of the burn-injured child. Methodological issues and future directions for applied burn research are presented. Additionally, the potential contributions of behavior therapy to the multiple difficulties of burned children and their families are discussed. Finally, the need for primary prevention efforts is emphasized.