Abstract Schizophrenia, with its apparent genetic basis, persists despite demonstrating impaired fecundity. Although this has been considered paradoxical, a similar paradigm is observed elsewhere in nature. Honey bee colonies possess sterile task specialists whose presence can best be understood by the evolutionary principle of group selection. Group selection may be pertinent to human history and consequently schizophrenia could represent an ancient form of behavioral specialization. Shamanism and religion demonstrate some similarities to psychosis and may provide clues regarding the origins of schizophrenia.