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Experimental characterization and micromechanical modeling of superelastic response of a porous NiTi shape-memory alloy

Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmps.2005.03.009
  • Porous Shape-Memory Alloy
  • Niti
  • Experimental Characterization
  • Thermodynamics
  • Micromechanics
  • Free Energy
  • Chemistry
  • Physics


Abstract Porous shape-memory alloys are usually brittle due to the presence of various nickel–titanium intermetallic compounds that are produced in the course of most commonly used synthesizing techniques. We consider here a porous NiTi shape-memory alloy (SMA), synthesized by spark-plasma sintering, that is ductile and displays full shape-memory effects over the entire appropriate range of strains. The porosity however is only 12% but the basic synthesizing technique has potential for producing shape-memory alloys with greater porosity that still are expected to display superelasticity and shape-memory effects. The current material has been characterized experimentally using quasi-static and dynamic tests at various initial temperatures, mostly within the superelastic strain range, but also into the plastic deformation regime of the stress-induced martensite phase. To obtain a relatively constant strain rate in the high strain-rate tests, a novel pulse-shaping technique is introduced. The results of the quasi-static experiments are compared with the predictions by a model that can be used to calculate the stress–strain response of porous NiTi shape-memory alloys during the austenite-to-martensite and reverse phase transformations in uniaxial quasi-static loading and unloading at constant temperatures. In the austenite-to-martensite transformation, the porous shape-memory alloy is modeled as a three-phase composite with the parent phase (austenite) as the matrix and the product phase (martensite) and the voids as the embedded inclusions, reversing the roles of austenite and martensite during the reverse transformation from fully martensite to fully austenite phase. The criterion of the stress-induced martensitic transformation and its reversal is based on equilibrium thermodynamics, balancing the thermodynamic driving force for the phase transformation, associated with the reduction of Gibbs’ free energy, with the resistive force corresponding to the required energy to create new interface surfaces and to overcome the energy barriers posed by various microstructural obstacles. The change in Gibbs’ free energy that produces the driving thermodynamic force for phase transformation is assumed to be due to the reduction of mechanical potential energy corresponding to the applied stress, and the reduction of the chemical energy corresponding to the imposed temperature. The energy required to overcome the resistance imposed by various nano- and subnano-scale defects and like barriers, is modeled empirically, involving three constitutive constants that are then fixed based on the experimental data. Reasonably good correlation is obtained between the experimental and model predictions.

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