The sex hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 185 postmenopausal women (aged 45-65 years) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and related to assessments of bone mineral density at the spine and proximal femur. Compared with 518 postmenopausal control women (aged 45-65 years), DHEAS levels were below normal in the 120 patients with RA who had never taken corticosteroids and levels were further depressed in 39 patients currently using steroids. Twenty six patients who had completed steroid treatment also had lower DHEAS levels, suggesting a delayed recovery of adrenal androgen secretion. Oestradiol and SHBG levels were similar in all groups. There was no correlation between sex hormones and disease activity. Oestradiol correlated with bone mineral density at all sites. Although oestradiol correlated with DHEAS, there was no relation between DHEAS and bone mineral density. The cause of below normal levels of DHEAS in RA is unclear, whether a consequence of chronic illness, immune dysfunction, or a defect of adrenal androgen synthesis.