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Extension of the SIMLA Package for Generating Pedigrees with Complex Inheritance Patterns: Environmental Covariates, Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interaction*

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  • Article
  • Biology
  • Ecology
  • Geography
  • Medicine


We have previously distributed a software package, SIMLA (SIMulation of Linkage and Association), which can be used to generate disease phenotype and marker genotype data in three-generational pedigrees of user-specified structure. To our knowledge, SIMLA is the only publicly available program that can simulate variable levels of both linkage (recombination) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) between marker and disease loci in general pedigrees. While the previous SIMLA version provided flexibility in choosing many parameters relevant for linkage and association mapping of complex human diseases, it did not allow for the segregation of more than one disease locus in a given pedigree and did not incorporate environmental covariates possibly interacting with disease susceptibility genes.

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