Abstract The effect of endotoxin ( Salmonella enteritidis-Boivin) on ovum transport in the rabbit was examined. A dose of 10 μg/kg intravenously (iv) given 24 h after an injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to induce ovulation caused expulsion of 87% of ova from the oviduct within 24 h. The ED 50 and 95% probability limits were 3.1 (2.38–4.03) μg/kg. A dose of 20 μg/kg given at 24 h after hCG exerted its effect on ovum transport within 4 h. Concurrent treatment with indomethacin completely prevented the effect of endotoxin on ovum transport. Endotoxin caused an increase of prostaglandin-like material (PG) E, measured by radioimmunoassay, in uterine vein blood within 35 min and PGE levels continued to rise until 3 h after endotoxin and remained elevated until 8–9 ½ h. PGF in uterine vein blood was not elevated until 90 min after endotoxin and then increased more rapidly than PGE during the next 2.5 h: it was still elevated at 8–9 ½ h. The ratio of PGF:PGE in uterine vein blood decreased from 3:1 in 24 h control samples to 1:1 at 1 h after endotoxin, and then increased rapidly exceeding 5:1 at 2 h. In animals given both indomethacin and endotoxin PG levels in uterine vein blood declined. Phenoxybenzamine partially prevented the effect of endotoxin on ovum transport and in animals so treated PGE levels in uterine vein blood increased similarly to those in animals receiving endotoxin alone, but PGF values, while elevated, were suppressed compared to those in endotoxin animals and the PGF:PGE ratio never exceeded 2:1. It is concluded that endotoxin induces accelerated ovum transport by causing an initial relaxation of the oviductal isthmic musculature due to PGE dominance followed by stimulation of oviductal circular musculature due to PGF dominance.